The Harmel Report helped to lay the foundations for the convening of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in 1973. Two years later, the conference culminated in the Helsinki Final Act. The law obliged its signatories – including the Soviet Union and members of the Warsaw Pact – to respect the fundamental freedom of their citizens, including freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief. Soviet leaders internally downplayed these clauses in the law and attached more importance to Western recognition of the Soviet role in Eastern Europe. Eventually, however, the Soviets learned that they had become attached to powerful and potentially subversive ideas. In order to end Slobodan Milošević`s Serb-led crackdown on KLA separatists and Albanian civilians in Kosovo, the UN Security Council adopted a resolution on 23 September. Resolution 1199 was adopted in September 1998 calling for a ceasefire. Negotiations under the leadership of US Special Envoy Richard Holbrooke were halted on 23 March 1999 and he handed the matter over to NATO, which began a 78-day bombing campaign on 24 March 1999.  Operation Allied Forces targeted the military capabilities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia at the time. During the crisis, NATO also sent one of its international intervention forces, the ACE Mobile Force (Land), to Albania under the name Albanian Force (AFOR) to provide humanitarian assistance to refugees from Kosovo.
 www.wsj.com/articles/nato-set-to-invite-montenegro-to-join-in-first-expansion-of-alliance-since-2009-1448908484 Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate rapidly in 1948. There were sharp disagreements over the status of post-war Germany, with the Americans insisting on German reconstruction and eventually rearmament, and the Soviets strongly resisting such actions. In June 1948, the Soviets blocked all land travel to the U.S. occupation zone in West Berlin, and only a massive U.S. airlift with food and other necessities supported the area`s population until the Soviets relented and lifted the blockade in May 1949. In January 1949, in his State of the Union address, President Harry S. Truman warned that the forces of democracy and communism were engaged in a dangerous struggle, and he called for an alliance to defend the nations of the North Atlantic – the U.S. military in Korea.
In April 1949, representatives of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Portugal join the United States in signing the NATO Agreement. The signatories agreed: « An armed attack on one or more of them. will be perceived as an attack on them all. President Truman hailed the organization as a « shield against aggression. » With the help of aid and a security umbrella, political stability in Western Europe was gradually restored and the post-war economic miracle began. New allies joined the alliance: Greece and Turkey in 1952 and West Germany in 1955. European political integration has taken its first hesitant steps. In response to West Germany`s accession to NATO, the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite states concluded the Warsaw Pact in 1955. Europe has fallen into a turbulent impasse, symbolised by the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The countries of Western Europe were ready to consider a collective security solution. In response to rising tensions and security concerns, representatives of several Western European countries have come together to form a military alliance.
Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg signed the Brussels Treaty in March 1948. Their treaty provided for collective defence; When one of these nations was attacked, the others were forced to help with the defense. At the same time, the Truman administration introduced peacetime conscription, increased military spending, and called on the historically isolationist Republican Congress to consider a military alliance with Europe. In May 1948, Republican Senator Arthur H. Vandenburg introduced a resolution proposing that the president seek a security treaty with Western Europe that would be consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, but would exist outside the Security Council, where the Soviet Union had a veto. The Vandenburg resolution was adopted and negotiations on the North Atlantic Treaty began. www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/11/nato-paris-attack-article-5/416097/ www.nytimes.com/2018/06/26/world/europe/trump-nato-summit-g-7.html Not all Americans have adopted NATO. Isolationists such as Senator Robert A. Taft said NATO was « not a peace program; it is a war program. Most, however, saw the organization as a necessary response to the communist threat.
The U.S. Senate ratified the treaty in June 1949 by a large majority. In the following years, Greece, Turkey and West Germany also joined. The Soviet Union condemned NATO as a warmongering alliance and responded by establishing the Warsaw Pact (a military alliance between the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites) in 1955. www.bushcenter.org/catalyst/global-challenges/lloyd-nato-still-relevant-in-a-dangerous-world.html www.nbcnews.com/storyline/turkey-military-coup/turkey-coup-how-does-nato-u-s-respond-n610641 After the dissolution of the USSR in the late 1980s, NATO`s relations with Russia thawed. In 1997, they signed the NATO-Russia Founding Act to establish bilateral cooperation. In 2002, they established the NATO-Russia Council to work together on common security issues. Talks between Western countries ended on April 4, 1949, when the foreign ministers of 12 countries from North America and Western Europe met in Washington, D.C., to sign the North Atlantic Treaty.
It was primarily a security pact, with Article 5 stipulating that a military attack on one of the signatories would be considered an attack on all. When U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson (1893-1971) signed the document, it reflected a significant shift in U.S. foreign policy. For the first time since the 1700s, the United States had officially tied its security to that of nations in Europe – the continent that had served as the focal point for both world wars. The new members of the Alliance came mainly from Central and Eastern Europe, including former members of the Warsaw Pact. Membership in the Alliance is governed by individual action plans and requires the consent of each current member. NATO currently has a candidate country for membership of the Alliance: Bosnia and Herzegovina. The objective of NTM-I was to help develop training structures and institutions for the Iraqi security forces so that Iraq could build an effective and sustainable capability that meets the needs of the nation. NTM-I was not a combat mission, but is an independent mission under the political control of the North Atlantic Council. The operational focus was on training and mentoring.